Manual Geometrical and Statistical Methods of Analysis of Star Configurations Dating Ptolemys Almagest

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Part 3, , GTM Novikov The basic elements of differential geometry and topology. Kluwer Acad. Publishers, The Netherlands, Taylor and Francis, Sejarah [ sunting sunting sumber ] A. Fomenko et al. Chronology 1 , Introducing the problem. A criticism of the Scaligerian chronology. Dating methods as offered by mathematical statistics. Eclipses and zodiacs. Chronology 2 , The dynastic parallelism method.

The Bible. Chronological shifts. Chronology 3 , Astronomical methods as applied to chronology. Tycho Brahe.


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The Egyptian zodiacs. The Netherlands, V Kalashnikov. Dating Ptolemy's Almagest. Applications to Chronology. Antiquity in the Middle Ages.

REVIEW OF THE ARTICLE OF YU.N.EFREMOV "NEW, BUT FALSE CHRONOLOGY" [р19], pp.142-146

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Ptolemy's Solar Hypotheses

Dalam proyek lain Wikimedia Commons. The reason is that the ACCURACY of the given by these methods datings is too low and, as a consequence, the datings themselves have too big dispersion. As a result datings of the catalogue of Almagest with such rather simple modes turn to be uninformative, trivial. As for the method, taken from our book by Yu. See also section 7. Here we once again come across the fact that Yu. Efremov in a strange way doesn't place importance on the evaluation of the accuracy in the problem of dating of the star catalogue of Almagest.

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Evaluations of the accuracy of approximate datings of the catalogue composing are not given by Yu. Efremov at all — as in the reviewed case, - or are wrong. The provided example of borrowing by Yu. Dambis of a method of dating from our book — besides the method, thrown away by us due to its low accuracy, - brightly characterizes the relation of Yu. Efremov to the issue of evaluation of accuracy in general.

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By the way, evaluation of accuracy is the key question in this problem. This is really so. In order to prove this Yu. Dambis refer to the works of a number of astronomers, who searched for identification of the star number from Almagest in numeration of Baily , which was called by Ptolemy in Almagest just "medium star".

But we underline, only based on the fact, that at the epoch of the II century A. We underline, that no other arguments for the mentioned identification, except correspondence of the coordinates, were used in case with the star number This star is marked neither by brightness nor by own name or more or less detailed description in Almagest.

It considerably changes its position on the sky through centuries. Moreover, they, of course, used the Scaligerian dating of Almagest.

Timocharis

Otherwise, the mentioned identification — extremely important for Yu. Efremov — is just a consequence of the Scaligerian dating of Almagest. To use it for dating of Almagest, as Yu. Efremov does, - it is the same as to solve a reverse problem and to restore according to the results of the work of astronomers of the XVIII-XX centuries that the Scaligerian dating of Almagest, which they used in their work on identification of the stars of Ptolemy. But such dating is well known — it is, we will repeat, the Scaligerian dating.

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Of course, with such approach Yu. Efremov couldn't receive any other date for Almagest, but the Scaligerian one. Here we come across a vicious circle in the reasonings of Yu. Efremov, who as a consequence insistently gives forwarding. Many times we explained to Yu. Finally, it becomes wearisome to explain him this. An important difference of such mode from the previous method of Yu. Efremov, as Yu. While in the previous method of Yu. But it is surprising, that a transition to new modified method of dating didn't improve, but instead, worsened a bit the accuracy of the received by Yu.

Efremov dating. Efremov dated Almagest with 13th year A. Efremov could date Almagest "only" with the accuracy plus-minus years. The result of new dating of Almagest of Yu. Efremov is such: 90 year B. So, the method was improved, and the accuracy, which it gives, - worsened. How this could be understood? Efremov in a wrong way evaluates the accuracy of the received by him datings.

Whimsicality of the stated by Yu. Efremov order of accuracy of the received by him datings of the catalogue of Ptolemy was explained by us in detail else within the review of the previous works of Yu. A simple calculation shows, that a real order of the accuracy of the method of Yu. Efremov told in detail, how did he receive his estimation of accuracy.

But in the last work of Yu. Other, more detailed works on this topic Yu. Efremov, apparently, also doesn't have. That's why it is difficult to indicate the specific mistakes in the estimation of accuracy, made by Yu. But there is no need in it. The characteristics are such, that the accuracy of dating of the catalogue of Almagest by means of proper motions of the stars with the mehod of Yu.

Efremov made a task oriented preliminary selection of the environments of fast stars, what provided the "required" answer. As the method of Yu. Efremov is unstable to the choice of the stars environment, then with the help of the choice of suitable environment it is possible to receive the desired in advance date from the catalogue of Almagest.

See details in our review of the method of Yu.

The difference is only in the fact, that earlier Yu. Efremov received datings for each fast star separately with some choice of its environment. We will clarify, that in the method of Yu. Efremov a position of a fast star is determined relatively to its environment, which consists of close to it stars.

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Efremov proposes to get a single date for all fast stars. Ecliptic coordinates on the celestial sphere for the epoch of the beginning of the Common era are considered. One of the coordinates, latitude or longitude, is fixed.

follow Next one of the datings, according to the initial method of Yu. Efremov, is presented as a point on a plane.