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9 Signs of Disease That Are Written All Over Your Face

Forty-one percent of the women reported taking hormone replacement therapy at the time of their calcium scan. Use of hormone therapy was highest between and gradually decreased during the study period from more than 60 percent of women in to 23 percent of women in Just over 6 percent of the women died during an average follow-up period of eight years. Those using hormone replacement therapy were significantly older than those not on the therapy, with an average age of 60 years in the non-therapy group compared to an average age of 64 years in the group taking the therapy.

To account for this difference in their analysis, the researchers performed statistical adjustments and also assessed outcomes for separate age groups, divided into five-year intervals. After accounting for age, coronary calcium score and cardiovascular risk factors including diabetes, high blood pressure and high cholesterol, women using hormone replacement therapy were overall 30 percent less likely to die than those not on hormone therapy.

Heart Health

Women using hormone replacement therapy were also 20 percent more likely to have a coronary calcium score of zero the lowest possible score, indicating a low likelihood of heart attack and 36 percent less likely to have a coronary calcium score above indicative of severe atherosclerosis and high heart attack risk.

Estrogen is thought to be protective of heart health through its beneficial effects on cholesterol and because it increases the flexibility of blood vessels and arteries, allowing them to accommodate blood flow. Studies show that pre-menopausal women, who produce high levels of estrogen, typically have the cardiovascular health of men 10 to 20 years younger than them, but rates of heart disease increase dramatically after menopause, when estrogen levels plummet. By replacing the natural estrogen lost during menopause, hormone replacement therapy could be one way for women to regain the cardiovascular benefits of estrogen, Arnson said.

Women and their doctors weigh many factors when deciding whether or not to use hormone replacement therapy. This study involved a larger number of patients and a longer follow-up time than most other recent studies, and it offers new evidence on potential cardiovascular and survival benefits. It does not, however, offer definitive insights on which groups are likely to benefit most or weigh in on cancer-related or other potential risks. Women who have already had a heart attack, have known heart disease or have a history of blood clots are advised against taking hormone replacement therapy.

The meeting runs March The ACC's Annual Scientific Session , which in will be March in Washington, brings together cardiologists and cardiovascular specialists from around the world to share the newest discoveries in treatment and prevention. People respond to stressful situations differently.

Hormone Replacement Therapy Associated with Lower Mortality - American College of Cardiology

Some react strongly to a situation. Others are relaxed and unconcerned. Luckily, you can decrease the effect of stress on your body.

Heart Disease and Hormone Replacement - Healthy Head to Toe Series: Menopause

First, identify situations that cause stress. Although difficult, try to control your mental and physical reactions to these stressful situations.

Try the following to help manage stress and keep your heart healthy. Exercise can help counteract the harmful effects of stress.

For heart health, aim for at least 30 to 40 minutes, 4 to 5 days a week. Exercise can help to improve cardiovascular health by controlling weight, improving cholesterol , and lowering blood pressure. Exercise has another benefit that lowers stress. People who exercise have a reduced physical response to stress. Their blood pressure and heart rates don't go up as high as people under stress who don't exercise. Regular exercise can also reduce the risk of depression, another risk factor for heart disease.

Need exercise motivation? Get a pedometer and try to walk 10, to 12, steps per day. This may also help you maintain your weight. With a pedometer, you get instant feedback and credit for all you do, such as taking the stairs instead of the elevator.

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Research suggests that having a strong support network like being married, having someone you can talk to and trust, or belonging to organizations or a religion can reduce your stress level and your risk of heart disease. If you already have heart disease, this same network can help reduce your risk for heart attack.

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Having at least one person you can rely on takes a heavy burden off you and provides comfort. A strong support system helps you take better care of yourself, too. Research shows that a lack of social support increases the chance of engaging in unhealthy behaviors like smoking, eating a high-fat diet, and drinking too much alcohol. Depression and anxiety can increase your risk of dying from heart disease, if you already have it.

Research suggests that long-term anxiety or emotional stress can increase the risk for sudden cardiac death.


  1. Presenting Venous Thromboembolism: Prophylactic Options for Patients at Different Risk Levels.
  2. Active Lessons for Active Brains: Teaching Boys and Other Experiential Learners, Grades 3-10;
  3. Sex hormones and your heart.
  4. Yesterdays Promise.
  5. Endogenous estrogen;
  6. Do menopausal women have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease?!

To reduce your anxiety level, try activities that reduce stress like yoga, walking meditation, traditional meditation, guided imagery, or other methods. Look for classes in your area. Alcohol, tobacco, and caffeine can increase feelings of anxiety and increase your stress and blood pressure.